Soldier Combat Skills

Chapter 15-2 – Improved Explosive Devices

IEDs are nonstandard explosive devices that target both Soldiers and civilians. IEDs range from crude homemade explosives to extremely intricate remote-controlled devices. They instill fear and diminish the resolve of our forces by escalating casualties. The sophistication and range of IEDs continue to increase as technology improves, and as our enemies gain experience.

TYPES

15-26. IEDs include explosive devices, impact-detonated devices, and vehicle-borne bombs:

TIMED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES

15-27. These can either be detonated by electronic means, possibly even by a cell phone; or by a combination of wire and either a power source or timed fuse.

IMPACT-DETONATED DEVICES

15-28. These detonate after any kind of impact such as after being dropped or thrown.

VEHICLE-BORNE BOMBS

15-29. Also known as car bombs, these explosive-laden vehicles are detonated via electronic command wire, wireless remote control, or a timed device(s). A driver is optional. Anything from a small sedan to a large cargo truck or cement truck (Figure 15-9) can be used. The size of the vehicle limits the size of the device. Bigger vehicles can carry much more explosive material, so they can cause more damage than smaller ones. Device functions also vary. Some possible signs of a car bomb include–

  • A vehicle riding low, especially in the rear, and especially if the vehicle seems empty. However, because explosive charges can be concealed in the side panels, the weight may be distributed evenly. Even so, the vehicle may still ride low, indicating excessive weight.
  • Large boxes, satchels, bags, or any other type of container in plain view such as on, under, or near the front seat of the vehicle.
  • Wires or rope-like material coming out the front of the vehicle and leading to the rear passenger or trunk area.
  • A timer or switch in the front of a vehicle. The main charge is usually out of sight, and as previously stated, often in the rear of the vehicle.
  • Unusual or very strong fuel-like odors.
  • An absent or suspiciously behaving driver.

IDENTIFICATION

15-30. The following are tell-tale signs of IEDs:

  • Wires
  • Antennas
  • Detcord (usually red in color)
  • Parts of ordinance exposed

COMPONENTS

15-31. The following are components of an IED:

  • Main Charge (Explosives) (Figure 15-10).
  • Casing (material around the explosives; Figure 15-11).
  • Initiators (command detonated, victim activated, and timer; Figure 15-12).



EXAMPLES

15-32. Figures 15_13 through 15-18, this page through page 15-16, show example IED types and components. These photos are examples to train Soldiers to recognize components of IEDs. Recognition is needed when Soldiers conduct operations, such as raids, traffic control points, convoys, and come across suspicious items.






ACTIONS ON FINDING UXO

15-33. Many areas, especially previous battlefields, may be littered with a wide variety of sensitive and deadly UXO. Soldiers should adhere to the following precautions upon discovering a suspected UXO:

  • Do not move toward the UXO. Some types of ordnance have magnetic or motion-sensitive fusing.
  • Never approach or pick up UXO even if identification is impossible from a distance. Observe the UXO with binoculars if available.
  • Send a UXO report (Figure 15-19) to higher HQ (see special segment below). Use radios at least 100 meters away from the ordnance. Some UXO fuses might be set off by radio transmissions.
  • Mark the area with mine tape or other obvious material at a distance from the UXO to warn others of the danger. Proper markings will also help explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) personnel find the hazard in response to the UXO report.
  • Evacuate the area while carefully scanning for other hazards.
    • Take protective measures to reduce the hazard to personnel and equipment. Notify local officials and people in the area.
      1. Reporting Unit or Activity, and UXO Location: Grid coordinates.
      2. Contact Method: How EOD team can contact the reporting unit.
        call sign.
        discovered.
        possible chemical threat or a limitation of travel over key routes.
        threatened by the UXO.
        status.

Nine-Line UXO Incident Report

1. DTG: Date and time UXO was discovered.

2. Reporting Unit or Activity, and UXO Location: Grid coordinates.

3. Contact Method: How EOD team can contact the reporting unit.

4. Discovering Unit POC: MSE, or DSN phone number, and unit frequency or
call sign.

5. Type of UXO: Dropped, projected, thrown, or placed, and number of items
discovered.

6. Hazards Caused by UXO: Report the nature of perceived threats such as a possible chemical threat or a limitation of travel over key routes.

7. Resources Threatened: Report any equipment, facilities, or other assets threatened by the UXO.

8. Impact on Mission: Your current situation and how the UXO affects your status.

9. Protective Measures: Describe what you have done to protect personnel and equipment such as marking the area and informing local civilians.

Figure 15-19. Nine-Line UXO Incident Report.

ACTIONS ON FINDING IEDS

15-34. Follow these basic procedures when IEDs are found:

  • Maintain 360-degree security. Scan close in, far out, high, and low.
  • Move away. Plan for 300 meters distance minimum (when possible) and adapt to your METT-TC. Make maximum use of available cover. Get out of line of sight of IEDs.
  • Always scan your immediate surroundings for more IEDs. Report additional IEDs to the on-scene commander.
  • Try to confirm suspect IED. Always use optics. Never risk more than one person. Stay as far back as possible. When in doubt, back away and avoid touching.
  • Cordon off the area. Direct people out of the danger area and do not allow anyone to enter besides those responsible for responding, such as EOD. Question, search, and detain suspects as needed. Check any and all locations that you move to for other IEDs.
  • Report the situation to your higher command. Use the IED spot report shown in Figure 15-20.

IED SPOT REPORT

LINE 1. DATE-TIME-GROUP: [State when the item was discovered.]

LINE 2. UNIT:

LINE 3. LOCATION OF IED: [Describe as specifically as possible.]

LINE 4. CONTACT METHOD: [Radio frequency, call sign, POC.]

LINE 5. IED STATUS: [Detonation or no detonation.]

LINE 6. IED TYPE: [Disguised static / Disguised moveable / Thrown / Placed on TGT.]

LINE 7. NUMBER OF IEDs:

LINE 8. PERSONNEL STATUS:

LINE 6. EQUIPMENT STATUS:

LINE 7. COLLATERAL DAMAGE OR POTENTIAL FOR COLLATERAL DAMAGE:

LINE 8. TACTICAL SITUATION: [Briefly describe current tactical situation.]

LINE 9. REQUEST FOR: [QRF / EOD / MEDEVAC].

LINE 10. LOCATION OF L/U WITH REQUESTED FORCE (S):

Figure 15-20. IED Spot Report.


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